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UNESCO Science Report

UNESCO Science Report, Towards 2030

The UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 provides more country-level information than ever before. The trends and developments in science, technology and innovation policy and governance between 2009 and mid-2015 described here provide essential baseline information on the concerns and priorities of countries that should orient the implementation and drive the assessment of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in the years to come.

Executive Summary

English | Français | Español | Русский | العربية | 中文
Portuguese | German
The executive summary will soon be available in Arabic and Catalan.



Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO

Perspectives on emerging issues

Universities: increasingly global players
Patrick Aebischer, President, Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland

A more developmental approach to science
Bhanu Neupane, Programme Specialist, Communication Sector, UNESCO

Science will play a key role in realizing Agenda 2030
Opinion piece based on a policy brief prepared by the Scientific Advisory Board of the Secretary-General of the United Nations

Science for a sustainable and just world: a new framework for global science policy?
Heide Hackmann, International Council for Science and Geoffrey Boulton, University of Edinburgh

Local and indigenous knowledge at the science–policy interface
Douglas Nakashima, Head, Local and Indigenous Knowledge Systems programme, UNESCO

Global overview

A world in search of an effective growth strategy
Luc Soete, Susan Schneegans, Deniz Eröcal, Baskaran Angathevar and Rajah Rasiah

Tracking trends in innovation and mobility
Elvis Korku Avenyo, Chiao-Ling Chien, Hugo Hollanders, Luciana Marins, Martin Schaaper and Bart Verspagen

Is the gender gap narrowing in science and engineering?
Sophia Huyer

A closer look at regions and countries

Paul Dufour

United States of America
Shannon Stewart and Stacy Springs

Harold Ramkissoon and Ishenkumba A. Kahwa

Latin America
Guillermo A. Lemarchand

Renato Hyuda de Luna Pedrosa and Hernan Chaimovich

European Union
Hugo Hollanders and Minna Kanerva

Southeast Europe
Djuro Kutlaca

European Free Trade Association
Hans Peter Hertig

Countries in the Black Sea basin
Deniz Eröcal and Igor Yegorov

Russian Federation
Leonid Gokhberg and Tatiana Kuznetsova

Central Asia
Nasibakhon Mukhitdinova

Kioomars Ashtarian

Daphne Getz and Zehev Tadmor

The Arab States
Moneef R. Zou’bi, Samia Mohamed-Nour, Jauad El-Kharraz and Nazar Hassan

West Africa
George Essegbey, Nouhou Diaby and Almamy Konte

East and Central Africa
Kevin Urama, Mammo Muchie and Remy Twiringiyimana

Southern Africa
Erika Kraemer–Mbula and Mario Scerri

South Asia
Dilupa Nakandala and Ammar Malik

Sunil Mani

Cong Cao

Yasushi Sato and Tateo Arimoto

Republic of Korea
Deok Soon Yim and Jaewon Lee

Rajah Rasiah and V.G.R. Chandran

Southeast Asia and Oceania
Tim Turpin, Jing A. Zhang, Bessie M. Burgos and Wasantha Amaradasa


Composition of regions and subregions
Statistical annex