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Toolkit on Gender Indicators in Engineering, Science and Technology
Developed in the framework of the UNISPAR project, this Toolkit seeks to help its users collect sex-disaggregated data in scientific and technological activities for national and international policy.
Toolkit Developed by Sophia Huyer and Gunnar Westholm

Click here to view the Toolkit>>
Table of Contents



Chapter One
Introductory Overview: Gender Indicators for EST


A. Women’s Contributions to Science and Technology for Development

1. Why gender? Women’s contributions to national development
2. Undervaluing women’s work
3. Women’s contributions in other sectors
4. Why gender, science and development?
5. Why the toolkit is needed: no data, no visibility; no visibility, no priority

B. Gendering Statistics and Indicators in Engineering Science and Technology

1. Science and technology statistics
2. Sources of data on women’s participation in S&T;
3. Defining science and technology activities and personnel for statistical purposes
4. Science and technology professions
5. S&T; development and transfer: meeting the needs of society

Chapter Two
The Leaky Pipeline: Gender Issues in Engineering, Science and Technology

Introduction: A Gender Perspective
A. The Leaky Pipeline

1. Socio-cultural attitudes
2. Education
3. Academic Positions

B. International Initiatives in Gender, Engineering, Science and Technology

Chapter Three
Measuring Science And Technology Activities: Principal International Guidelines

A. Science and Technology Activities (STA)

1. Research and (Experimental) Development (R&D;)
2. Scientific and Technical Education and Training (STET) at Broadly the Third Level
3. Scientific and Technological Services (STS)

B. S&T; as Fields of Study (Fields of Education)/Fields of Science

1. The International Standard Classification of Education — ISCED

Chapter Four
Measuring Science And Technology Personnel: Measurements and Classifications

A. Principal International Guidelines for Measuring S&T; Personnel

1. UNESCO: Science and Technology Personnel
2. OECD Frascati Manual: R&D; Personnel
3. OECD/Eurostat Canberra Manual: Human Resources for S&T;

B. Categories of S&T; Personnel

1. Principal Aggregates of S&T; Personnel

C. Some Basic Concepts for S&T; Personnel Data and Indicators
D. The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO)
E. Breakdown of S&T; Personnel by Occupation, Education and Qualification

1. Occupation Classes
2. Education/Formal Qualification

F. Measuring the Activities of Science and Technology Personnel

1. Stocks and Flows of S&T; Personnel
2. Status of the S&T; Labour Force
3. Other Variables for the Collection of S&T; Data
4. Gender Statistics and Indicators

Chapter Five
Collecting Gender-Disaggregated Data: Case Studies and Models

A. Gender Indicators

1. Indicators of Participation
2. Selecting indicators

B. Developing gender-disaggregated indicators in S&T;
C. Education Statistics and Indicators

1. The Basic UNESCO Education and R&D; Statistics
2. OECD Education Statistics and Indicators

D. Gender data and indicators at higher levels

1.Undergraduate retention of women students
2. Participation of women in science and technology careers
3. Women’s Participation in Science and Technology Decision Making

E. Indicators and statistics on women’s contributions to agricultural production

1. Farming systems or whole farm research
2. Resources: Access and Control
3. Benefits

F. Collecting data on women’s participation in the informal sector

1. Informal Sector
2. Home-based work
3. Street vendors


Sources of Gender-Disaggregated Data in Engineering, Science and Technology

A. United Nations and International Government Organisations
B. Regional Agencies
C. Standard National Sources with Breakdowns by Gender

1. Overview: Types of Available Data
2. Special Gender Indicators

D. Web Sites and Internet Resources
E. Research Institutions and Programmes

1. United States — Primary Non-NSF Sources
2. United States — Primary NSF Sources
3. International

E. Women’s Science and Engineering Organisations

1. International
2. Regional
3. National

F. Women Inventors’ Associations

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