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UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse

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  1. Changes in HIV prevalence among differently educated groups in Tanzania between 2003 and 2007

    Objective: HIV prevalence trends suggest that the epidemic is stable or declining in many sub-Saharan African countries. However, trends might differ between socioeconomic groups. Educational attainment is a common measure of socioeconomic position in HIV datasets from Africa. Several studies have shown higher HIV prevalence among more educated groups, but this may change over time. We describe changes in HIV prevalence by educational attainment in Tanzania from 2003 to 2007. …

  2. The Impact of the HIV/AIDS and Economic Crises on Orphans and Other Vulnerable children in Zimbabwe

    Zimbabwe, like most of Sub-Saharian Africa, has been hard-hit by HIV/AIDS. National estimates reported by the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare put the prevalence rates of HIV in the age group between 15 and 49 at 15.3% (WHO, UNICEF, & UNAIDS, 2008). This is one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in the world (UNAIDS, 2008). The impact of the pandemic has been so severe that current mitigation efforts fall short of alleviating the situation, especially as it pertains to the plight of children. …

  3. Can we use young people’s knowledge to develop teachers and HIV-related education?

    Despite recent progress in meeting the goals of the Education for All agenda, certain groups of young people are particularly vulnerable to exclusion and underachievement, including children with HIV/AIDS, children living in poverty, and children with disabilities. HIV/AIDS has reduced many young people’s rights to access education, to live a full and healthy life, and to have a life as a child. …

  4. The health and wellbeing of young people in sub-Saharan Africa: an under-researched area?

    A third of sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) population comprises persons aged 10–24 years. These youth are growing up in a context marked by pervasive poverty, limited educational opportunities, high HIV/AIDS prevalence, widespread conflict, and weak social controls. Published research on the broad issues that affect youth health and wellbeing in SSA is limited and centers heavily on sexual and reproductive health. …

  5. Rapid assessment most-at-risk adolescents and young people to HIV in Lao PDR

    The Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) has a 'latent' HIV epidemic, with rates of HIV estimated at just 0.2 per cent of the total population aged between 15-49 years of age. However, because of its location in the heart of the Mekong, surrounded by countries with high rates of HIV in concentrated epidemics, Lao PDR is believed to be "in danger of an expanding epidemic". More than 50 per cent of the population of Lao PDR is below the age of 20 and adolescents and young people engaged in highrisk behaviour for HIV are an emerging priority across Asia and the Pacific. …

  6. Social protection and cash transfers to strengthen families affected by HIV and AIDS

    Based on a review of over 300 documents, this monograph examines how social protection can be used to protect children and families affected by HIV and AIDS. It reviews evidence on the impacts of 10 unconditional cash transfer (UCT) programs in southern and East Africa and 10 conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs in Latin America. …

  7. The protective role of religious coping in adolescents' responses to poverty and sexual decision-making in rural Kenya

    In this study, the authors explored how adolescents in rural Kenya apply religious coping in sexual decision-making in the context of high rates of poverty and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 adolescents. One-third (13) reported religious coping related to economic stress, HIV, or sexual decision-making; the majority (29) reported religious coping with these or other stressors. …

  8. An expanding sexual economy along National Route 3 in Luang Namtha Province, Lao PDR

    With some of the lowest development indicators in Southeast Asia, remote upland areas of the Lao People's Democratic Republic are among the poorest in the region. The advent of improved transport and communication links, along with opportunities for wage employment, have accelerated the growth of a cash economy in traditionally isolated farming communities of Luang Namtha Province. Interviews and focus group discussions with young people, women in the sexual service business and health workers indicate that the lure of the new economy is wooing villagers away from their agrarian roots. …

  9. National HIV/AIDS Strategy 2011-2016

    The National HIV/AIDS Strategy 2011 - 2016 is a national guiding document and a road map for the next five year, for all sectors, institutions and partners involved in the response to HIV and AIDS in Nepal to meet the national goal; to achieve univeral access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support with two major programmatic objectives (i) reduce new HIV prevention by 50% and (ii) reduce HIV related dealths by 25%, by 2016.

  10. Paying to prevent HIV infection in young women?

    Between a quarter and a third of young women in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with HIV by the time they reach their early 20s. Structural factors such as poor education, poverty, and gender and power inequalities are important determinants of young women’s vulnerability to HIV infection. In The Lancet, Sarah Baird and colleagues report the results of a randomised controlled trial done with adolescent girls in rural Malawi, examining the effects of a cash transfer programme on risk of HIV infection. …

  11. The Impact of a Comprehensive Microfinance Intervention on Depression Levels of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Uganda

    The relationship between poverty and mental health functioning is well documented. Poverty affects not only families’ ability to physically care for children, but also families’ stability, functioning, and psychosocial well-being. In this article, we examine the impact of a comprehensive microfinance intervention, intended to reduce the risk of poverty, on depression among adolescent youth who have lost either one or both parents to AIDS.A child who has been affected by AIDS is more likely to have increased levels of anxiety, depression, and reduced self-esteem. …

  12. Adolescent Fertility in Low-and Middle-Income Countries: Effects and Solutions

    Adolescent fertility in low- and middle-income countries presents a severe impediment to development and can lead to school dropout, lost productivity, and the intergenerational transmission of poverty. However, there is debate about whether adolescent pregnancy is a problem in and of itself or merely symptomatic of deeper, ingrained disadvantage. To inform policy choices and create a revised research agenda for population and development, this paper aggregates recent quantitative evidence on the socioeconomic consequences of and methods to reduce of teenage pregnancy in the developing world. …

  13. Out of wedlock, into school: combating child marriage through education

    In this report, Gordon Brown, the former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, explains how child marriage can lead to a life of poverty, illiteracy and powerlessness for girls. Brown challenges the international community to take urgent action to end child marriage. His review says that the issue of child brides has been "conspicuous by its absence" in the efforts to cut global poverty, bring down child and maternal death rates, and get children into school.

  14. Orphan and vulnerable children: health policy interventions in India

    This paper reviews and discusses studies and interventions which have addressed the problems and concerns of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in India. Most of the research and commentary on OVC is based on investigations conducted in African countries. Accordingly, this review focuses on OVC in India in order to facilitate further critical discussion and the development of appropriate programmes and policies for the Indian context. …

  15. Education and Nonuse of Contraceptives Among Poor Women in Chiapas, Mexico

    Context: Relatively little is known about how poverty and illiteracy affect women's decisions to adopt contraception, specifically their likelihood of never having practiced contraception. Methods: A random sample of 883 women in union aged 15-49 living in the Border Region of the Mexican state of Chiapas were interviewed in 1994 as part of a regional survey of reproductive health. …

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