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the world academy of sciences for the advancement of science in developing countries
The 66 S&T-lagging countries
TWAS has identified 66 developing countries for which capacity in science and technology is significantly lagging. The list includes the 48 Least Developed Countries identified by the United Nations, plus countries selected because of their low income levels and specific needs for support in building research capacity.

TWAS and its partner, the Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSD), set these as priority countries for support. From 2017, all OWSD PhD fellowships and many TWAS research grants are reserved for scientists in these countries.

In 2007, TWAS issued a list of 81 science- and technology-lagging countries. The new list reflects changes and advances in global development patterns.

  1. Afghanistan
  2. Angola
  3. Bangladesh
  4. Benin
  5. Bhutan
  6. Bolivia
  7. Burkina Faso
  8. Burundi
  9. Cambodia
  10. Cameroon
  11. Central African Rep
  12. Chad
  13. Comoros
  14. Congo
  15. Côte d’Ivoire
  16. Dem. Rep. Congo
  17. Djibouti
  1. El Salvador
  2. Equatorial Guinea
  3. Eritrea
  4. Ethiopia
  5. Gambia
  6. Ghana
  7. Guatemala
  8. Guinea
  9. Guinea-Bissau
  10. Haiti
  11. Honduras
  12. Kenya
  13. Kiribati
  14. Lao People’s Dem. Rep
  15. Lesotho
  16. Liberia
  17. Madagascar
  1. Malawi
  2. Mali
  3. Mauritania
  4. Mongolia
  5. Mozambique
  6. Myanmar
  7. Nepal
  8. Nicaragua
  9. Niger
  10. Palestine (West Bank and Gaza Strip)
  11. Paraguay
  12. Rwanda
  13. Sao Tome and Principe
  14. Senegal
  15. Sierra Leone
  16. Solomon Islands
  1. Somalia
  2. South Sudan
  3. Sri Lanka
  4. Sudan
  5. Swaziland
  6. Syrian Arab Republic
  7. Tajikistan
  8. Tanzania
  9. Timor-Leste
  10. Togo
  11. Tuvalu
  12. Uganda
  13. Vanuatu
  14. Yemen
  15. Zambia
  16. Zimbabwe


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