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Inclusion and Education


In line with its mandate, the 2020 GEM Report assesses progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4) on education and its ten targets, as well as other related education targets in the SDG agenda. The report also addresses inclusion in education, drawing attention to all those excluded from education, because of background or ability. The report is motivated by the explicit reference to inclusion in the 2015 Incheon Declaration, and the call to ensure an inclusive and equitable quality education in the formulation of SDG 4, the global goal for education. It reminds us that, no matter what argument may be built to the contrary, we have a moral imperative to ensure every child has a right to an appropriate education of high quality.

The report also explores the challenges holding us back from achieving this vision and demonstrates concrete policy examples from countries managing to tackle them with success. These include differing understandings of the word inclusion, lack of teacher support, absence of data on those excluded from education, inappropriate infrastructure, persistence of parallel systems and special schools, lack of political will and community support, untargeted finance, uncoordinated governance, multiple but inconsistent laws, and policies that are not being followed through.  

To complement its online database on education inequalities, the Worldwide Inequality Database on Education (WIDE), in January, 2020, the GEM Report launched a new online monitoring tool, Scoping Progress in Education, (SCOPE) telling the story behind SDG 4 data using the latest in online publishing and data-visualization technologies.  

A complementary new online platform, Profiles Enhancing Education Reviews, (PEER) prepared by the GEM Report has been launched describing countries’ laws and policies on inclusion and education. 

Two special regional reports produced in collaboration with regional partners deep dive into inclusion and education in Latin America and the Caribbean (released November 2020) and Central and Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (released February 2021).


Press release: English / Español / Français / Русскийالعربية / 中文 / Korean / Khmer / Indonesian / Hindi

Latin America and the Caribbean press release: English / Español

Social media

Sub-Saharan Africa fact sheet: English

Northern Africa Western Asia fact sheet: English

Latin America and the Caribbean fact sheet: English / Español

Arab States fact sheet: English

Central and Southern Asia fact sheet: English

Eastern and South-Eastern Asia fact sheet: English

Europe fact sheet: English

USA fact sheet: English


  • Inclusion and education: Voices from Brazil
  • Carlos Alvarado Quesada, President of Costa Rica: 2020 GEM Report
  • Inclusion and education: Voices
  • 2020 GEM Report Animation
  • Inclusion and Education: Voices from Malawi
  • Inclusion and Education: Voices from Liberia
  • Inclusion and education: Voices from Pakistan